Friday, February 3, 2012

Technological Change And Women Workers

Technological change and overall impact
There is a significant relationship between technological change and the overall socio-economic situation of workers. In one way, technological change has direct influence on the overall situation of workers. Income and status of workers are significantly influenced by the change. The overall situation of workers is affected , in other way, by the job security, job satisfaction, work and relations through the influence of technological change.  Technological change affects job security, job satisfaction, and work relations and, in turn, impact on the overall socio-economic situation of workers. Technological change impact on overall situation of workers is defined in socio-economic team.

This includes economic factors such as income, benefits, allowance and social concerns, such as, family, or status, job security, job satisfaction, and work relations are related to this overall socio economic situation. Technological change increase skill demands, work pressure, uncertainty and frustration among the workers. The change eliminates  jobs from the company. Technological change has influence on job satisfaction of workers. It often increases job dissatisfaction benefits. The change lower salary, alters work assignment, deteriorates supervision quality, lower information sharing, declines promotion opportunity, and deteriorates co-worker relations. These negative influence of technological change increase conflicts between management and workers. The higher level of conflicts increases conflicts increase strikes, which has a significant negative effect on work relations in the company.

Technological Change And The Women Workers
Technological change has significant impact on women textile and garment workers. The life and work of women workers in developing countries is full of challenges and social constrains (Reardon, 1998).Women make up the majority of workers in the textile and garment industry throughout Asia. But they are disadvantaged both as women and as workers (Hanifa, 1995). They are low cost and easily available in labor markets. Due to the fierce competition in international markets and abounds in low-skilled unemployed workers women can not command high price (Akhter, 1995). Women workers do not have adequate training in most the case. The already have access to the same traning and educations as men. Therefore, if prior training is required, they are deprived of it. In addition, women are not considered suitable without training and they are not promoted to the areas of work where the training is necessary. Textile and garment managers admit that the women are more accurate and diligent than men. But they are often paid less than standard wage rates (Bangladesh institute of Management, 1999). The management of the company often suppresses women workers by paying less than standard wages and providing poor working conditions (Friedmann, 1992). For the similar work women are paid at a lower rate then the men (Tuyen,1997). Although there are some good laws for protecting women workers right such as equal pay for equal work between men and women.But in practice these are not followed (Meihe and Haiyan, 1995). Women are treated poorly at the workplace because they are most unskilled and are unable work with significant jobs. Women have hardly any change to mutual dialogue concerning work pay, and benefits with the management ( Wahra and Rahman, 1995).

With a subordinate position in society women can not exert their rights and have hardly any control over their work and working environment. The social status of women workers depends on the changing economic circumstances of the economy. Usually, lower income women undertake reproductive, productive, and community managing activities . There are practical needs and social needs . Practical needs are related to the socially accepted roles of women in the society and concerned with the necessity to provide a living which are affected by the inadequacies in living conditions  such as, water provision, health, employment, etc. Social needs are associated with the gender divisions of labor, power, and control, legal rights, equal wages womenis control over their bodies, etc. Appropriate work related policies including welfare, equality, efficiency, and economic and social empowerment are very important approaches to fulfil both needs of women workers in developing countries (Pearson, 1992, Moser, 19993, UNDP, 1995).