Friday, February 3, 2012

Technological Change And Women Workers


Technological change and overall impact
There is a significant relationship between technological change and the overall socio-economic situation of workers. In one way, technological change has direct influence on the overall situation of workers. Income and status of workers are significantly influenced by the change. The overall situation of workers is affected , in other way, by the job security, job satisfaction, work and relations through the influence of technological change.  Technological change affects job security, job satisfaction, and work relations and, in turn, impact on the overall socio-economic situation of workers. Technological change impact on overall situation of workers is defined in socio-economic team.

This includes economic factors such as income, benefits, allowance and social concerns, such as, family, or status, job security, job satisfaction, and work relations are related to this overall socio economic situation. Technological change increase skill demands, work pressure, uncertainty and frustration among the workers. The change eliminates  jobs from the company. Technological change has influence on job satisfaction of workers. It often increases job dissatisfaction benefits. The change lower salary, alters work assignment, deteriorates supervision quality, lower information sharing, declines promotion opportunity, and deteriorates co-worker relations. These negative influence of technological change increase conflicts between management and workers. The higher level of conflicts increases conflicts increase strikes, which has a significant negative effect on work relations in the company.


Technological Change And The Women Workers
Technological change has significant impact on women textile and garment workers. The life and work of women workers in developing countries is full of challenges and social constrains (Reardon, 1998).Women make up the majority of workers in the textile and garment industry throughout Asia. But they are disadvantaged both as women and as workers (Hanifa, 1995). They are low cost and easily available in labor markets. Due to the fierce competition in international markets and abounds in low-skilled unemployed workers women can not command high price (Akhter, 1995). Women workers do not have adequate training in most the case. The already have access to the same traning and educations as men. Therefore, if prior training is required, they are deprived of it. In addition, women are not considered suitable without training and they are not promoted to the areas of work where the training is necessary. Textile and garment managers admit that the women are more accurate and diligent than men. But they are often paid less than standard wage rates (Bangladesh institute of Management, 1999). The management of the company often suppresses women workers by paying less than standard wages and providing poor working conditions (Friedmann, 1992). For the similar work women are paid at a lower rate then the men (Tuyen,1997). Although there are some good laws for protecting women workers right such as equal pay for equal work between men and women.But in practice these are not followed (Meihe and Haiyan, 1995). Women are treated poorly at the workplace because they are most unskilled and are unable work with significant jobs. Women have hardly any change to mutual dialogue concerning work pay, and benefits with the management ( Wahra and Rahman, 1995).

With a subordinate position in society women can not exert their rights and have hardly any control over their work and working environment. The social status of women workers depends on the changing economic circumstances of the economy. Usually, lower income women undertake reproductive, productive, and community managing activities . There are practical needs and social needs . Practical needs are related to the socially accepted roles of women in the society and concerned with the necessity to provide a living which are affected by the inadequacies in living conditions  such as, water provision, health, employment, etc. Social needs are associated with the gender divisions of labor, power, and control, legal rights, equal wages womenis control over their bodies, etc. Appropriate work related policies including welfare, equality, efficiency, and economic and social empowerment are very important approaches to fulfil both needs of women workers in developing countries (Pearson, 1992, Moser, 19993, UNDP, 1995).

Thursday, February 2, 2012

The change in Textile and garment industry



The globalization of business has increased the shares of international trade of the developing countries. It has increased the interaction of domestic economies with the world economy. Technological change is one of the major driving forces for business globalization. 

The globalization of business has facilitated textile and garment production to be more international. The main factors contributed to the globalization of this industry include labor-intensive nature of production technology, the loss of comparative cost advantage of developed countries, dramatic decline in transport and communication costs, search for production sites with lower labor costs, and shift in exports from more restricted to less restricted among the developing countries due to the discriminatory nature of the restrictions imposed by the Multifibre Arrangement ( Ramaswamy and gereffi, 2000). In last three decades, half of the total production capacity of textile and garment production has shifted from developed to the developing countries. The main reason for this shift could be attributed by the low labor costs in production. Developing countries enjoy low labor cost advantages in producing textiles and garments. It increased at a rate of 17 percent between 1985 to 1990, which is higher than the world trade in manufacturing of 15.50 percent during the same period (World Trade Organization, 1995).This production performance is achieved by using labor intensive technologies. But globalization has increased the need for using advanced technologies in developing countries. This has created a challenge for this countries because they enjoy low labor costs in producing textiles and this advantage is disappearing.

With the change in production technology, regulatory measures, economic issues, and demographic factors textile and garment manufacturing processes have been changing. Technological change (eg., CAD, Cam, Cim) is the most powerful change driver in this sector (World Bank, 1995). Technological change in textile and garment production includes new and advanced machines, computer-aided production, design, and control. The CAD/CAM for grading, pattern making, marking, and sewing is most important among the technological developments in the sector. For exporting with greater design content and high value-added products, technological change is crucial for the garment company. This is the main balancing factors between suppliers and customers for satisfying their demands.

Technology has become a major shaping force of textile and garment sector to satisfy the requirements of customers. The rapid development and diffusion of textile technologies are contributing to changing both the environment in which people work and the location of that work. Essentially, technology demands specialized knowledge and skills that raise concerns in terms of cost, utilization of capacities, length of educational and training programs, availability of human resource etc. Understanding and controlling the diffusion of technology are important considerations for human resource planning.

Due to the presence of external change drivers, many companies are experiencing pressures to ensure continued growth through enhanced competitiveness in international market. Textile and garment manufacturers recognize that a workforce with the high skills to implement new business strategies is the key component to their future success (Human Resource Development Canada, 1997). These create significant negative effects on lower skilled workers. New human resource requirements need to be considered through an impact analysis of technology before its adaptation. Technological change influence managers to consider change in training requirements, job content, skill levels and demand of workers. Identifying new emerging and existing technologies, place of use, functions, degree of development, probability of their being introduced and their impact on workers are important for the sustainable growth of these companies.

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Technological change and job satisfaction


The job satisfaction of worker is significantly influenced by the technological change. The studies related to job satisfaction primarily follow a combination of three board theoretical approaches including social-psychological, neoclassical, economic approach, and a more sociological approach. Some researchers used facets of the job to conceptualize job satisfaction. While others used total satisfaction as the basis for this conceptualization (Khaleque and Rahman, 1987; Rice, Mcfarlin and bennett, 1989; Levin and stokes, 19989). However, the social psychological approach seems to dominate the literature, which argues that a number of factors determine job satisfaction of workers (Mulinge and Mueller, 1998). These are mainly two kinds – intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic factors include worker participation, autonomy, communication, task significance, distributive justice, career growth, and job variety. The extrinsic factors are pay, benefits, promotional opportunity, job satisfy, supervisory support, co-worker relations, work overload, role conflicts, and resource inadequacy (Naumann, 1993; Ganguli, 1994). Essentially, job satisfaction is a self reported positive mental state resulting from the appraisal of oneis job or from oneis experience (Rust and Stewart, 1976). 

Supervision quality is an important matter for the workers Unfair treatment regarding pay, allowances work distribution, and the unfair behaviors of supervisors increases with technological change (Topolosky, 1998). Supervisors work at the floor level and they should be involved of the design of jobs involved in the change. The nature of job design includes task complexity, task variety, and task interdependence which are correlated with job satisfaction (Appelbaum, 1997). Task interdependence demands similar skilled workers at the different stages of manufacturing process to produce a high quality product. This requires the active role of supervisors in the change. Engineers often perform job design without using the experience of supervision (Ostberg and Enqvist, 1984).  This results in the negative motivation of supervision.  

Workers benefits are significantly modified by the introduction to new and advanced technologies. Lee (1997) found that the higher skilled workers get more financial and non-financial benefits than the lower skilled worker in the change. Non-financial benefits are related to promotion in higher position and employ in significant task. Worker with higher skills can easily adapt to the new work environment. They are able to perform a variety of jobs that increase their benefits. The change increases advancement in job for the higher skilled workers. The positive impact of technological change is improving oneis  career within the company (rothweel, 1987). The benefits of lower skilled workers are reduced due to their inability to work with complex machines, which results in more dissatisfaction.

Co-workers relations is an important influence on a congenial work environment .This is even more important when the company introduce new technologies into the company (Chapman, 1998). Co-workers relations will be higher when they work as team with similar fillings and attitudes about the changes. Workers satisfaction will be higher when working as members of a group as compared  to working as an individual. But technological change creates conflicts among the workers. The higher level of conflicts causes divisions among workers, which lowers their job satisfaction.

The change in Textile and garment industry



The globalization of business has increased the shares of international trade of the developing countries. It has increased the interaction of domestic economies with the world economy. Technological change is one of the major driving forces for business globalization. 

The globalization of business has facilitated textile and garment production to be more international. The main factors contributed to the globalization of this industry include labor-intensive nature of production technology, the loss of comparative cost advantage of developed countries, dramatic decline in transport and communication costs, search for production sites with lower labor costs, and shift in exports from more restricted to less restricted among the developing countries due to the discriminatory nature of the restrictions imposed by the Multifibre Arrangement ( Ramaswamy and gereffi, 2000). In last three decades, half of the total production capacity of textile and garment production has shifted from developed to the developing countries. The main reason for this shift could be attributed by the low labor costs in production. Developing countries enjoy low labor cost advantages in producing textiles and garments. It increased at a rate of 17 percent between 1985 to 1990, which is higher than the world trade in manufacturing of 15.50 percent during the same period (World Trade Organization, 1995).This production performance is achieved by using labor intensive technologies. But globalization has increased the need for using advanced technologies in developing countries. This has created a challenge for this countries because they enjoy low labor costs in producing textiles and this advantage is disappearing.

With the change in production technology, regulatory measures, economic issues, and demographic factors textile and garment manufacturing processes have been changing. Technological change (eg., CAD, Cam, Cim) is the most powerful change driver in this sector (World Bank, 1995). Technological change in textile and garment production includes new and advanced machines, computer-aided production, design, and control. The CAD/CAM for grading, pattern making, marking, and sewing is most important among the technological developments in the sector. For exporting with greater design content and high value-added products, technological change is crucial for the garment company. This is the main balancing factors between suppliers and customers for satisfying their demands.

Technology has become a major shaping force of textile and garment sector to satisfy the requirements of customers. The rapid development and diffusion of textile technologies are contributing to changing both the environment in which people work and the location of that work. Essentially, technology demands specialized knowledge and skills that raise concerns in terms of cost, utilization of capacities, length of educational and training programs, availability of human resource etc. Understanding and controlling the diffusion of technology are important considerations for human resource planning.

Due to the presence of external change drivers, many companies are experiencing pressures to ensure continued growth through enhanced competitiveness in international market. Textile and garment manufacturers recognize that a workforce with the high skills to implement new business strategies is the key component to their future success (Human Resource Development Canada, 1997). These create significant negative effects on lower skilled workers. New human resource requirements need to be considered through an impact analysis of technology before its adaptation. Technological change influence managers to consider change in training requirements, job content, skill levels and demand of workers. Identifying new emerging and existing technologies, place of use, functions, degree of development, probability of their being introduced and their impact on workers are important for the sustainable growth of these companies.